Friday, May 22, 2020
Roger Williams was born in London, circa 1603, during a period of intense religious intolerance. After finishing school in England, he traveled to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, initially to be a missionary. His radical views on religious freedom and disapproval of the practice of confiscating land from the Native Americans earned him the wrath of church leaders and he was banished from the colony. With his followers, he fled to Narragansett Bay, where he purchased land from the Narragansett Indians and established a new colony, which became a haven for Baptists, Quakers, Jews and other religious minorities. Nearly a century after his death, Williamss notion of religious freedom and the separation of church and state inspired the framersÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A year later, he decided to travel to America with his wife to test his faith. When Roger Williams arrived in Boston, he intended to be a missionary to the Native Americans. He studied their language, customs and religion and grew to see them much as himself. This led him to openly question the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s prerogative of granting charters, believing that the land could only be purchased directly from the Native Americans themselves. Williams was an amicable person, easily liked in most circumstances, but he was also impulsive and easily excited. Over the next six years, he found himself at odds with Massachusetts Bay officials over the issue of personal faith. He did not believe the government should have power over religious mattersÃ¢â¬âa strict separation of church and stateÃ¢â¬âwhereas the Puritans believed that religious and civil law were one and the same and that it was their duty to enforce both. In 1635, the magistrates had had enough and banished Roger Williams from the colony for sedition and heresy. Williams and his followers fled to Narragansett Bay, where he befriended a native tribe and established the enclave he named Providence. Within a few years it had become home to other religious outcasts, such as Anne Hutchinson. Even after he was in exile, religious purists in neighboring Massachusetts feared Roger Williams and threatened to take over Providence. Contradicting his claim that the king had no rightShow MoreRelatedThe Separation Between Church And State1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexercise religion. The predominant issue between church and state does not rest on protecting those avoiding religion, but to protect those choosing to practice religious freedom. Roger Williams and John Winthrop firmly believe that church and state must remain separate from the state to prevent misconception in religion. Several scholars, religious leaders, and theologists, broadly recognized throughout literature and history, state his/her convictions concerning church and state segregation. BiblicalRead MoreJohn Winthrop And Roger Williams889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessettlers of the American colonies were seeking to escape religious persecution, as well as to find a place to freely develop and expand their religious convictions. Despite sharing common English heritage as well as branching from the Anglican and Catholic church, religious views on liturgy and deontological ethics differed greatly amongst the settlers. This can be seen in the works of John Winthrop and Roger Williams. While both menÃ¢â¬â¢s religious beliefs stemmed from the same roots, each held differentRead MoreThe Puritan Views Of Puritans860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesanti-individualistic beliefs. However, when they deviated from the religious code they were threatened with banishment from the community and often experienced public shaming. Also the Puritans, whom had come to the colonies seeking religious freedom for themselves, cultivated a society that was intolerant of the practice of religious freedo m for others. The Puritan influence enabled conformist tendencies based around a religious moral code which did not tolerate for deviation of Puritan beliefsRead MoreEssay about Colonial America540 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Religious Freedom in colonial America nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Religion was a very important part of everyday life in colonial America. Sometimes people were not allowed to question what they were taught, and if they did so they were punished accordingly. Before 1700 some colonies had more religious freedom then others. While others colonies only allowed religious freedom to a select group, others allowed religious freedom to all different kinds of religions. In the overall there was quiteRead MoreRoger Williams Essay1752 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMost people go through life not worrying about others thoughts, just throwing stereotypes around without any justification or knowledge of the person being alienated. Some are ungrateful for the religious freedom that most of us are able to carry. Some do not realize the fight that people went through over 300 years ago to gain religious freedom and work through and around the profiling given by the hierarchy of society. No one worked harder for the freedoms to be provided and st ereotypes to beRead MoreThe Impact of Puritans on the Development of America and Its Influence on Modern Society1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Impact of Puritans on the Development of America and its influence on modern society The Puritans came to America in search of greater freedom for religious liberty. They felt unable to worship and practice their theological perspectives as long as they were under the umbrella of the Church of England. The puritans views with the Church of England began differ greatly and they felt they could no longer be under their control. The Puritans decided that they needed to break free from the ChurchRead MoreCalvanism Essay1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescorrupt and no longer stood for their way of life. They felt that they could create an ideal Christian society in a New World, which would be a model for others to follow. Some even compared themselves to the Hebrews and held the notion that they were founding the New Israel. (Brow) As religious laws had governed the people of Israel, so did the church regulate New England society. The Puritans had some of the most interesting beliefs of the early religious groups. Founded by the beliefs of JohnRead MorePuritan Beliefs Of The Massachusetts Bay Colony1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Puritan belief, life was planned according to God, and a society worked to live out that plan. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was a closely integrated group that worked together to fulfill the wishes of a larger community. Puritans religious beliefs produced ideas that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will was to lead a community based on peace. God had set high expectations for a happy and trustworthy community. However, if a community did not live up to the expectations, God would destroy the community. Therefore, PuritanRead MoreThe World Of North America1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontinent. While some historians might have argued Ã¢â¬Å"the arrival of Europeans meant a better, freer life for most if not all peopleÃ¢â¬ , this was primarily true for white Christian Europeans. Even though some colonists experienced more political freedoms, these freedoms were very limited. In reality, economic freedom was also limited for both Europeans and Indians; additionally, both groups suffered religious persecution at the hands of the government and missionaries. The rights given to Catholics andRead MoreAPUSH Essay 1 British North America Religous Tolerance896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Evaluate the extent to which religious toleration in the British North American colonies maintained continuity as well as fostered changed from 1607-1700. Prior to the founding of the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630 religion had not played a large part in the politics and development of the British North American colonies. The first settlers who established Jamestown in 1607 were looking for riches similar to those found by the Spanish in Central America. After finding no treasure and on the brink
Saturday, May 9, 2020
May 18, 2016, will be a significant day for me and as it approaches, I am continuously caught in the emotional tension of trepidation and excitement; on that day, I will be ordained to the Priesthood. The season of intentional preparation over the past twelve months has been sobering and humbling as the Lord, in his grace, has combed through my heart, exposing the vileness of my sinfulness while lovingly disciplining and drawing my heart back to him. This class, throughout the pre-reading, lectures, the post-reading, and writing proved to be immensely valuable in my priestly preparatory journey. The most haunting, yet captivating theme was that of seeking the Lord. 1 and 2 Chronicles place a great deal of focus on the necessity of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦32:22; cf. 32:1). Throughout these books we see as the king sought the Lord, so did the nation, inversely, as they forsook the Lord, the nation followed (2 Chron. 33:9). Though pastors or priests are not the equivalen t to the King of Israel, they do possess a significant role in the spiritual leadership of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s covenant people. Consequently, this class has caused me to contemplate, prayerfully, the necessity and implications of Christian leadership in their passionate pursuit of seeking the Lord on their congregations and personally, do I, like Hezekiah, seek God with all my heart? Saul, David, Solomon Stephen Nearly immediately after ending the genealogies, the Chronicler makes a point to address the death of Saul and connects it directly to SaulÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. He writes, So Saul died for his breach of faith. He broke faith with the Lord in that he did not keep the command of the Lord, and also consulted a medium, seeking guidance. He did not seek guidance from the Lord. Therefore the Lord put him to death and turned the kingdom over to David the son of Jesse (1 Chron. 10:13-14). SaulÃ¢â¬â¢s disobedience in seeking someone other than Yahweh cost him his kingdom, calling, and life. The life and kingship of Saul feature only in one chapter (outside of the genealogy) with the purpose of creating an obvious contrast with David and his life of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A Glimpse into The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Marie Edmund ENG 125: Introduction to Literature Nathan Pritts February 11, 2013 A Glimpse into The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Literature can be found at every turn and there are many different genres to choose from. Each brings with it a new world for the reader to immerse himself. Literature allows the reader to experience a new perspective. We will write a custom essay sample on A Glimpse Into the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin or any similar topic only for you Order Now It allows the reader to feel and connect with the story and its characters. No matter the genre, the world created in a literary work provides enlightenment to the reader in spite of the varying emotions it conveys. One such literary work is Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ . This short story captured my interest through its use of irony. In studying this specific work, I chose to use a reader-response approach to evaluate and analyze the text. Using a reader-response approach allows me to connect with the story and reflect on the wide array of emotions presented in the story. In order to connect I had to read imaginatively and immerse myself in the story and put myself in the shoes of the main character, Mrs. Mallard. Once that was taken care of I had to consider or analyze what I had read, and then draw conclusions or interpret what I had read. In short, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ is about a woman who experiences a multitude of conflicting feelings at the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death due to a tragic train accident. Some of the feelings Mrs. Mallard experiences in this story are grief, exhaustion, fear, joy, and freedom. It is interesting to note that many of ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s literary works represent women who are struggling to be free or to have independence of self. Also noteworthy is the fact that ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s father died in a train accident and Chopin herself Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦grew up surrounded by smart, independent, single womenÃ¢â¬ (Wyatt, 1995, para. 2). It is no wonder that she portrays Mrs. Mallard as a strong, independent woman, in spite of her heart trouble. At the onset of the story, one might have the opinion that Mrs. Mallard is weak because of her heart trouble and the Ã¢â¬Å"great careÃ¢â¬ that is taken in relaying the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. However, it is quite the opposite. Initially she is distraught; stricken with grief and exhausted. But these feelings give way to something more. Using simile, the writer paints a clear picture of a new beginningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the airÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010). These thoughts of a new beginning brought with it fear for Mrs. Mallard. She was fearful of what she was feeling which could be described as joy or anticipation. Not wanting to seem heartless, in my opinion, she Ã¢â¬Å"beat it back with her willÃ¢â¬ , to no avail. She was finally free. Free to Ã¢â¬Å"live for herselfÃ¢â¬ and to only think of her needs. This desire for freedom and self seems to be a running theme in many of ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s literary works and can be seen in the character, Edna Pontellier, when she stands naked on the beach at Grand Isle. In a review by Lewis P. Simpson (1971), he quotes Seyersted who says that Edna Ã¢â¬Å"symbolizes a victory of self-knowledge and authenticity as she becomes fully herself. Ã¢â¬ I believe that this depicts Mrs. Mallard as well. Mrs. Mallard knew that her husband loved her and because of that she would still feel sorrow and grief, but she would also feel relief. Relief because she knew she had the rest of her life ahead of her to live it as she pleased. Unfortunately for her, that relief was short-lived when in an ironic twist, her husband, Brently Mallard walked in the front door alive and well and Mrs. Mallard died. There are many different genres of literature but in particular I really enjoyed ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s short story The Story of an Hour. The textbook tells us, Ã¢â¬Å"Literature restores the past, stimulates the imagination, glorifies the commonplace, evokes emotions and links feeling to thinking, upholds a vision of the ideal, and explores significant human questions and reveals human nature (Clugston, 2010). This rings true for this piece of literature. It brought together elements of imagination, symbolism, and metaphors that paint a vivid picture of a woman who feels repressed in her marriage and embraces the freedom she feels at the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. This piece allowed me to experience a new perspective. It allowed me to feel and connect with the story and its characters. It created a world that I could immerse myself into. References Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUENG125. 10. 2/sections/sec2. 3 Kate Chopin: A Critical Biography by Per Seyersted; The Complete Works of Kate Chopin by Per Seyersted; Kate Chopin Review by: Lewis P. Simpson Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association , Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter, 1971), pp. 86-88 Published by: Louisiana Historical Association Article Stable URL: http://www. jstor. org/stable/4231171 Wyatt, N. (1995). Biography of Kate Chopin. Retrieved from http://www. vcu. edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/katebio. html How to cite A Glimpse Into the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Market commonality has to do with the number of different markets that the firm and the competitors are jointly involved with. It also pertains to the degree of importance of the individual markets to each. There are many firms competing against one another in many markets and this engages them in multimarket competition. Firms with more multimarket contacts is less likely to initiate an attack, but more likely to respond aggressively when they are attacked. The degree of multimarket contact between two firms determines whether they are direct and immediate competitors.Resource similarity refers to how comparable the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible and intangible resources are to a competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s in terms of both types and amounts. Firms with similar types and amounts of resources are likely to have similar strengths, similar weaknesses, and use similar strategies. Assessing resource similarity can be difficult if critical resources are intangible rather than tangible. Two firms will recognize their competitive relationship if they compete in the same markets and develop comparable market personalities. We will write a custom essay sample on Market Commonality vs. Resource Similarity or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In a competitive situation, a firm has to be motivated to act or react, regardless of its capability (Chen, 2004). Motivation is a necessary condition and prereq for behavior, and is a more direct predictor of interfirm rivalry than is capability (Chen, 2004). These two concepts are the building blocks for a competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis. This analysis is used to help firms understand their competitors. The firm will study the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s future objectives and current strategies. By doing the competitor analysis, firms are able to predict the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors when forming their competitive actions and response.If you line the two side by side, market commonality and resource similarity coincides with one another when putting a competitor analysis together. Traits from both area allow all necessary information to be analyzed and compiled into a complete analysis. In market commonality it allows the firm to put number on all the firms within the market and how each acts/works within that market and against each other. In resource similarity is shows how comparable the firms are in both areas and how they compare to one another in each of those markets they are involved in.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Marketing Plan = Hotel Industry Free Online Research Papers Executive Summary This marketing plan has been prepared, taking into consideration the current economic situation. This weighs in heavily in every aspect of the plan Our luxury travel market has become quite challenging to operate and we have to take into account of what has been working for us and what has not been working for us. In order to survive, we might have take some steps that we might not have considered before. In doing this, we have to be careful not to lose market share to the competition that has resorted to price wars which would be detrimental to the market in the long term. Should the price war continue, it would be difficult to bring the rates up when the economy improves and it would mean less profits for all the players. The weak market has weighed heavily on the recommendations made. This is the general consensus of the direction that our organization should take and same time be flexible to adapt to any surprises that may arise in these uncertain times The budget is also based on the assumption that market sentiment is weak and the industry does not see a pick up anytime soon. With the government lending a hand via training grants, we have embarked on careful cost cutting measures and prudent spending. 1. Terms of reference This marketing plan is for the Four Seasons Singapore. The target market is the luxury traveler. Objective is to further target the luxury market travelers from that come into Singapore and also look to market ourselves in emerging markets. At the Four Seasons Singapore 60% of all room revenue is dependant on annually contracted clients from various industries. The rest 40% is from the leisure market, contracted as well through cruise ships and other channels like luxury concierge travel services worldwide and travel offices like Amex Centurion travel whose clients have to be earning a certain level of income to qualify. Singapore is a major embarkation and disembarkation point for luxury cruises like the Cunard Lines. As the Four Seasons Singapore is the smallest boutique hotel in the shopping district, we are able to differentiate from competitors. 2. Business Mission The mission of Four Seasons is to operate medium size hotels that provide exceptional quality to the luxury traveler. Frequent international travel began to pick up in the 70s and Four Seasons decided to capitalize on this by concentrating on a niche market. 3. PEST Analysis 3.1 Political The government is very pro tourism, 65% of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP is from the services sector and the Singapore government feels that this is its competitive edge. The government is providing training grants for hotels to help upgrade its workforce so that when the economy recovers, Singapore will be ready. The government is also lobbying for business to increase tourist arrivals actively overseas. We have taken advantage of the governments training grants. 3.2 Economic The downturn has caused many industry players to slash prices and has caused a mini price war. We are staying away from this and have creatively packaged our room rates with benefits and have taken this slow period to reward past customer loyalty. This we feel will further increase customer loyalty. 3.3 Socio-Cultural Unlike accommodation, we rely heavily on the local market for our banquet and food and beverage revenue. The power distance in Singapore society is to our advantage as we are considered a premier location to dine and to hold events. Weddings are a huge part of our revenue and being an auspicious year for the Chinese to wed, we are seeing continued growth and the market could be further exploited. 3.4 Technological The slowdown has also affected our suppliers and our equipment suppliers are offering competitive prices. There are many more offers that we could look into to better equip ourselves in the future, taking advantage of flexi payment plans offered 4. The Market Corporations worldwide have cut travel budgets and combined with falling tourist arrivals, the demand for hotel rooms have fallen among luxury hotels. Inflation and recession normally leads to a shift in demand for inferior goods and demand has shifted to three and four star hotels but they are still perceived to be expensive and people are still staying away even though rates are quite competitive when compared to the three and four star hotels. In order not to lose market share, Four Seasons has to ensure that there is no decline in service and its service promise. We have a reputation of being more personal compared to our competitors and we strive to build a relationship with our guests. As our competitors are all large hotels with almost the double the capacity, perception by guests who fill up feedback forms is that they feel that they are just another person compared to when they stay at the Four Seasons where we emphasize name recognition and usage. Our main source of business is from contracted corporate clients originating from both overseas and the local markets. Of this 90% is from the overseas market and 10% are from local companies. Location plays to our advantage together with our size of the hotel. Our niche market demands peace and quiet but a close proximity to the hustle and bustle of the city. We are the only hotel in the shopping district that is able to offer this due to our strategic location which is at the beginning of the street. Another advantage is the recent renovation that the hotel has gone through. We have a new product compared to the other luxury operators. Our market is mainly the US and UK market. Brand recognition is high and travelers mainly first time travelers who come to Singapore are most likely to book with us as they feel re-assured that service would be consistent. Based on statistics, travelers from the UK and the US made up the two of the largest groups after India and China. The exchange rate being an advantage, travelers from the UK and US perceive us as being value for money, compared to travelers from India and China whose currencies are lower than the Singapore Dollar find us to be expensive. 4.1 Market trends Many companies have cut down on corporate travel. With the collapse of Lehman Brothers, Singapore on the whole lost about 8000 room nights and we have lost 1000 room nights. Corporate travel is down by 40%. Many five star properties have decided to slash prices but we have a belief in our product which is fairly priced. Past experiences has given us precedence on how to run operations and keep costs down in times of crises. The competition has slashed prices and we feel that cutting rates is not the way to go as it would be difficult to justify to our guests the increase when the economy recovers and we will lose integrity. It is still possible that Asia could start to recover before the end of 2009, said Dr Martin Buck, Director of the Competence Center Travel Logistics at Messe Berlin, which commissions the ongoing research from IPK (hotelnewsresource.com/article37267.html#Continue). We need to come up with creative ideas which would add value to our product and services. A room could be packaged with additional benefits. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a consumers market as they are aware of the hotels undercutting each other and is using this to get the best possible deal. Four Seasons is refusing to be drawn into bargaining as its detrimental to the brand and its image as a luxury operator should it involve in bargaining. 4.2 Local Business Trends The economic slowdown had brought about a culture of prudent spending across all industries. With threats of unemployment looming, the negative impact on luxury goods is great. The government is also driving home this message to spend wisely by cutting down on hosting foreign dignitaries in local hotels. Although we are not reliant on the local business for our accommodation revenue, we are heavily dependant on the local market for weddings and catering business. Although everyone is cutting back, the Four Seasons is a much sought after venue. Wedding blogs and our marketing activities like hosting wedding fairs have created awareness and has helped us to hang on to our revenue targets. 4.3 Economic cut backs With the reduction in spending, the government is encouraging the local industry to go back to the drawing board to train employees and better equip them with skills. They are offering incentives and tax breaks for training purposes. The governments move to cut taxes on exhibitors at trade shows, highlights the governments commitment to improve the situation by making Singapore competitive and indirectly boosting the local tourism sector. 4.4 Market Growth The growth of our target market has been steady for the last 5 years in tandem with a steady increase of visitor arrivals. The long term agreement to host the Formula One race for the next five years has guaranteed a demand for rooms for a 2 weeks in September. Overall the world travel industry is expected to shrink at the rate of 2%(world travel trends report 2008\2009) Long haul demand is also expected to fall and we might see growth in the short haul traveler. This would also boost business for low cost carriers in the region. The luxury market again is not expected to make a recover to its pre-crisis levels anytime soon and we must look at being creative in tapping the short haul market. Analysts predict that only hotels that would ride the current economic situation will be those who are able to innovate. They go on to say that hotel sales and marketing personal cannot assume that the respective business processes will return to the same model that worked previously when the economy recovers. Scott Anthony in the Harvard Publishing Weekly pointed out that the name of the game now is to figure out what will provide optimal value to hotel guests in the product price segment. Value is no longer a price point. The example cited is that value to a $99 paying customer for a room night may not be the same as someone paying $500 a night. He concluded that we cannot expect customers to immediately pay a premium unless they are given a good reason to do so. 5. Strategic Issues Analysis Our current marketing objective is to target the luxury traveler in the emerging markets and to target the growing affluent people in existing markets and introduce them to luxury travel and accommodation To effectively communicate our strategic objectives to our target markets As new markets emerge we have to identify these new markets to promote our hotel To fulfil our promise of uncompromising quality and service to our hotel guests How we segment the market can be equated to benefit segmentation. Our target market is one that values high quality and service. They are also prepared to pay more for the benefit. Our competitive advantage can be attributed to three main points. Service, location and size. We are a premier choice for guests who seek small boutique hotel experience that offersÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy and discreet service. Our core competency is being able to provide a consistent high level of service. Although our competitors also aspire to provide a high level of service, consistency is an issue as being a much smaller hotel, we are able to monitor and control our services more effectively, preventing lapses Four Seasons is positioned as a luxury hotel providing seamless luxury service. We use past and current awards by travel magazines to convey the benefits of choosing the Four Seasons 5.1 Marketing Mix Effectiveness Product Rooms were recently renovated and this is an advantage compared to our competitors who have not upgraded recently Promotion We have come up with creative promotional offers. These are communicated through publications and travel operators that cater for the luxury market Price With the economic slowdown, our competitors have begun to slash prices. We have maintained our prices but have added services to the basic rates to make our product attractive Place Our location in the shopping district and its close proximity to major shopping centers is another factor that the hotel is marketed together with its excellent location 6. SWOT Strengths Weakness Strategy: Our differentiation strategy is a tried and tested formulae. Does not only work locally but is a similar strategy adopted by all FS Hotels Structure: Compared to other hotels, our structure is flat and decentralized. It facilitates communication Skills: The hiring strategy has ensured that those recruited have a diverse range of skills and language capabilities Staff: The staff are hired only if they have demonstrated a high level of service culture. The five levels of interview ensure that general consensus is reached before the hiring decision is made. Brand Strategy: The well established brand ensures that we are still the top choice among the luxury traveler Reputation: The reviews and awards from travel publications ensure a strong reputation. This reputation greatly aides our marketing efforts when sourcing for new business. Staff: Stringent recruitment, staff that we are looking for are hard to find and the hiring process takes a long time Systems: Most hotels credit air miles and we refuse to do so even though our guests ask for it. Facilities: Dining options, we only have two restaurants and many guests expect a fine dining restaurant in our hotel Opportunities Market: There will be retuning growth after. The training would be needed to be stepped up and to better prepare when business returns. Competitors: Apart from the current competitors, we do not foresee any new entrants of the boutique hotel niche, we are still not faced with direct competition Suppliers: The current economy crises is allowing us to renegotiate prices, we have managed to tie up long contracts at preferential prices Threats Substitutes: Furnished condominium units offering rates and situated across the hotel is cheaper and might attract the one night staying guests Economy: The recovery from the economic slump might be longer than expected 7. Marketing Objectives 7.1 Strategic Thrust Four Seasons current markets offer few prospects for future growth. The brand is well established and we feel that it has reached a plateau. Thus the need to enter emerging luxury markets. Four Seasons Singapore has to focus on markets like Russia and emerging markets in South America. Magazines such as Forbes comes up with emerging markets that is producing millionaires a sign of a growing affluent segment. The lead could be used to market our hotel. 7.2 Strategic Objective The strategic objective would be to build sales and market share. As Singapore being marketed as a destination for both business and leisure in emerging markets, we should follow suit and promote ourselves as the premier luxury hotel in Singapore. 8. Core Strategy 8.1 Target Market The target market is the luxury traveler in existing and emerging markets 8.2 Competitor Targets Four Hotels in Singapore are perceived to be our competitors. When the Singapore Tourism does its rankings, we found out to be the top of the list. This we should use when advertising to re-emphasize that we are the best hotel to stay with 8.3 Competitor advantage Our advantage boils down to three main factors. Reputation for unsurpassed service levels, location and the size of the hotel 9. Marketing Mix Decisions 9.1 Product We have a good product and a reputable brand. No change must be made here. The services that accompany the product must be looked into. Much improvement can be made here in the form of added benefits like room amenities. These do not have to be of great cost to us but they have to be meaningful and creative and we must also have a wide range. This is to avoid repetition and to maintain the element of surprise when the guest walks into the room. These amenities could be in the form of edible items or bath products that could be arranged prior to arrival. A token of appreciation should also be looked into, maybe in a form of a bear with the Four Seasons logo, it would be a reminder of their stay. The credit of air miles should also be started through partnerships with airlines. This would be an added reward for our guests who choose us. This would also build repeat business. Another move could be a company loyalty program. This might benefit us when it comes to the business traveler th at often travels to various locations. A loyalty reward program would induce a potential guest to choose Four Seasons. 9.2 Promotion With economy in a critical situation, the sales process needs to be innovative. This is something our marketing department is lacking. Instead of just cold calling, they must use targeted prospecting and pre-approach qualifying methods. We need to be clear on what kind of new customers will find value in our product. They could be in the form of meeting planners that could be of more value to the hotel. The key to note here is that value may not be a price point. A main process that our sales department could do is a through research. What is economic condition of the respective industries that our target market is an important area to consider. Changes in their business models and how we can tap their needs and add value to their experience must also be considered. When dealing with them, we need to have a message that appeals to them that concerns their business process improvement, or else all our efforts in trying to solicit a business agreement might fail. 9.3 Price We have a perception of being a expensive hotel. The current market, where hotels are cutting prices, we have refused to do so. Since there are more and more hotels cutting prices, we could modify our room categories and offer them at lower prices to match our competitor rates. There are about 50 rooms that are 5 square feet smaller than regular deluxe rooms. These could be sold at a lower price and the price difference can be justified by the smaller size. Loyalty could be rewarded with the room upgrades and throwing in spa treatments for repeat guests. This could be a viable strategy as we are not dropping rates across the board but opening up a limited supply for the price sensitive luxury traveler. This would be a room only offer and we could make revenue on food and beverage that the guest could potentially consume. 9.4 Place As demand drops from our usual US and UK markets, we should shift our focus to China and India market where 40 million trips were made out of China alone. Despite the global slowdown, this would be a good market to target as young consumers in Asia see personal travel as a key activity in their lifestyles. Research shows that top discretionary spend priorities among young consumers is personal travel 9.5 Physical Evidence The area that needs improvement that does not reflect our 5 star service is our spa. This would need significant upgrade as this area lacks the luxurious feel which is felt everywhere else in the hotel. Renovations and changes are needed in line with current spa trends. This would allow us to compete for the luxury leisure traveler with the other hotels. 9.6 Processes Although we have various processes that enable us to maintain a personal touch, we could do a little more to ensure we maintain a continuous relationship. Small ideas of sending a birthday card on a guests birthday for those who have a record with us, would go a long way to adding a personal touch and increase the chances of us being their choice when they make a purchase 9.7 People Four Seasons has a reputation of being only the best. Although all the necessary procedures are in place to ensure we hire the right people, the process of recruitment must be sped up. Many a times the 5 step interview process takes 4 to 5 weeks and potential employees decide to work somewhere else as they cannot wait that long. Talent sometimes slips through our fingers due to this slow process. 10. Marketing Budget Sales and Marketing Budget Total Labor 808300 Total Supplemental Pay 94700 Total Benefits Expense 147200 Total Employee Meals 22200 Total Labor Benefits 1500 Dues and Subscriptions 800 Miscellaneous Expense 800 Operating Supplies 4900 Postage, Freight, and Courier 20500 Printing and Stationery 70000 Promotion 11600 Telecom Expense 34900 Trade Shows 15600 Training 75100 Travel Meals and Entertainment 34900 Travel Other 3700 Media Advertising Production 14700 Agency Fees 15000 Collateral Material 60500 Corporate Advertising 387900 Direct Mail 72400 Media Food Beverage Advertising 29400 In-House Graphics 5200 Marketing Fee 536600 Outside Services 14700 Photography 17200 Media Rooms Advertising 38800 Media Trade Advertising 8000 Total 2,547,100 Figures are based on 5 years of historical data an spending patterns. Certain figures here have been amended to reflect the expenses should this marketing plan be accepted by management. Notable increase here is the Marketing Fee and Corporate Advertising. These are the areas that need additional investment as we go hunting for more business. Thru corporate advertising, our hotel is exposed to all markets that have a Four Seasons Hotel in the country. Tie in or special deals for Four Seasons Singapore could be promoted to current guests in other Four Seasons Hotels. Marketing fee here is used to fund the marketing effort in emerging markets. The marketing expense is $27.33 per available room and is 14% of the estimated net profit of $18 355 300. 11. Marketing Organization Our Director of marketing, Cristina Dolendo, is responsible for the execution of the plan. She would work closely with the director of PR for all our promotional and public relations activities 11.1 Implementation Product wise, for the rooms, the marketing department must try to promote our rooms by providing pictures as well. With the renovated rooms, we could increase the chance of purchase as they get to see how our rooms look like. The amount budgeted for photography is increased by 30% in the proposed marketing plan from 2008 to $17200 in 2009. The marketing department has to liaise with the finance department to better understand the hotels financial goals and come up with promotions. Given weak demand in the current market, the shift could be made from profiting from margins to generating revenue by volume. We will also continue to work on our customer relationship. The marketing departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to get the guest in for the first time and its up to operations to ensure the guest returns in the future. Interdepartmental communication is important and training has to be continuous to ensure that departments are communicating effectively. The marketing team has to also keep a lookout for emerging markets to tap. As Orchard area is being actively promoted by the local tourism board, the marketing department should tie in with their promotions and highlight the close proximity of the hotel to shopping centers. The plan will be ongoing and will be flexible to changes especially in the external environment. It will be altered and tweaked in order to react to these changes. Figures with regards to sales and effectiveness will be monitored using past results versus the actuals. 12. Control Taking into consideration the economy, in view of a slow recovery, the net profit forecasted for 2009 is considerably lower that the past years. Although unlikely, should a competitor emerge, our differentiation strategy will still be the appropriate. With our reputation, we will build on this to ensure we increase market share Reflexive Account The first step that I undertook for the project was research. Since my project was on my organization, a fair bit of research was needed. I wanted the project to be realistic and wanted it to be something that my marketing department will find worth considering. The Business mission was something that was explicitly stated on the website. The PEST analysis started it off and as the project progressed, finding and sorting relevant information was becoming a challenge. It would be easy to state my opinion in the PEST analysis but wanting it to be as realistic as possible, I had listed down many factors and by presenting it to the bosses, a general consensus was reached with regards to the factors affecting the hotel. Market analysis was a little easier to conclude as we are reminded daily of the market situation and we have to come up with ways to adapt to any changes. The whole section of the market analysis is a very real and current piece of information and finding articles to back these up were easy. The section of strategic issues analysis, I was under the impression that my marketing department would have all the relevant data but unfortunately they did not. Had to sit down and discuss these issues. I asked one of the sales managers if they had a copy which they can refer to but unfortunately only a few people have access to the marketing plan. Only the instruction are handed down but no one gets to see the whole plan. This is something I feel must change as the whole organization must know of the plan as There could be much to learn and feedback could be useful in order to tweak the plan should things do not go according to plan. Things got harder when asked what was our marketing objective. Many answered Ã¢â¬Å"its simple, its to make moneyÃ¢â¬ . This coming from a marketing person was quite unbecoming as I was expecting something substantial. Suddenly it felt that how can a marketing person say this as there are so many aspects to look at, besides making money. Thankfully someone from corporate office was able to help. She was also able to guide me on the core strategy. Moving to Marketing Mix decisions, again I turned to our marketing department for an opinion and some of them could not understand what I was asking. They vaguely remember that they studied this is school and have long forgotten them. Everyone one was caught up with daily operations and chasing new business that they had forgotten the basics. This led me to understand why we have some of the clients we have. Since we cater for the luxury market, it suddenly seemed that we are after every market that has a potential for revenue. We were slightly altering our prices to fit to the needs of the market rather that catering for the market that could afford us. Worse still in the current business situation where, every source of revenue is precious. Suddenly the well laid out marketing plan did not seem relevant as we are not following it. Went back to my marketing colleagues to ask if they felt the same way. Their answer being Ã¢â¬Å" we have no choiceÃ¢â¬ . Some felt that the plan for the coming year which is done at the end of the current year is just an exercise that is done to satisfy the requirements. This is such a waste when looking at the textbook, where there is so much analysis into every aspect but in reality, people are not making it work. I feel that for organizations like mine, the yearly marketing plans must be fully flexible so that it can be altered and it should be shared company wide, reasons being that we as a organization would know the direction and those who come up with the plan will be more realistic. Research Papers on Marketing Plan = Hotel IndustryAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceDefinition of Export QuotasThe Fifth HorsemanPETSTEL analysis of IndiaTwilight of the UAWOpen Architechture a white paperThe Project Managment Office SystemMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of Self
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Oxygen Facts - Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and element symbol O. Under ordinary conditions, it can exist as a pure element in the form of oxygen gas (O2) and also ozone (O3). Here is a collection of facts about this essential element. OxygenÃ Basic Facts Atomic Number: 8 Symbol: O Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Discovered By:Ã Credit for the discovery of oxygen is usually given to Carl Wilhelm Scheele. However, there is evidence credit should be given to the Polish alchemist and physician Michael Sendivogius. Sendivogius 1604 workÃ De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromt,Ã he describes cibus vitae or food of life. He isolated this substance (oxygen) in experiments conducted between 1598 and 1604 involving the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate or saltpeter. Discovery Date: 1774 (England/Sweden) or 1604 (Poland) Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p4 Word Origin:Ã The word oxygen comes from the Greek oxys, meaning sharp or acid and genes, meaning born or former. Oxygen mean acid former. Antoine Lavoisier coined the term oxygen in 1777 during his experiments exploring combustion and corrosion. Isotopes: Natural oxygen is a mixture of three stable isotopes: oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Fourteen radioisotopes are known. Properties: Oxygen gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color and are strongly paramagnetic. Other forms of solid oxygen appear red, black, and metallic. Oxygen supports combustion, combines with most elements, and is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds. Ozone (O3), a highly active compound with a name derived from the Greek word for I smell, is formed by the action of an electrical discharge or ultraviolet light on oxygen. Uses: Oxygen was the atomic weight standard of comparison for the other elements until 1961 when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 as the new basis. It is the third most abundant element found in the sun and the earth, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle. Excited oxygen yields the bright red and yellow-green colors of the Aurora. Oxygen enrichment of steel blast furnaces accounts for the greatest use of the gas. Large quantities are used in making synthesis gas for ammonia, methanol, and ethylene oxide. It is also used as a bleach, for oxidizing oils, for oxy-acetylene welding, and for determining carbon content of steel and organic compounds. Biology: Plants and animals require oxygen for respiration. Hospitals frequently prescribe oxygen for patients. Approximately two thirds of the human body and nine tenths of the mass of water is oxygen. Element Classification: Oxygen is classified as a nonmetal. However, it should be noted a metallic phase of oxygen was discovered in 1990. Metallic oxygen forms when solid oxygen is pressurized above 96 GPa. This phase, at very low temperatures, is a superconductor. Allotropes: The usual form of oxygen near the Earths surface is dioxygen, O2. Dioxygen or gaseous oxygen is the form of the element used by living organisms for respiration. Trioxygen or ozone (O3) is also gaseous at ordinary temperatures and pressure. This form is highly reactive. Oxygen also forms tetraoxygen, O4, in one of the six phases of solid oxygen. There is also a metallic form of solid oxygen. Source: Oxygen-16 is formed primarily in the helium fusion process and neon burning process of massive stars. Oxygen-17 is made during the CNO cycle when hydrogen is burned into helium. Oxygen-18 forms when nitrogen-14 from CNO burning fuses with a helium-4 nucleus. Purified oxygen on Earth is obtains from air liquefaction. Oxygen Physical Data Density (g/cc): 1.149 ( -183Ã °C) Melting Point (Ã °K): 54.8 Boiling Point (Ã °K): 90.19 Appearance: Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; pale blue liquid Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 14.0 Covalent Radius (pm): 73 Ionic Radius: 132 (-2e) Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 0.916 (O-O) Pauling Negativity Number: 3.44 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 1313.1 Oxidation States: -2, -1 Lattice Structure: Cubic Lattice Constant (Ãâ¦): 6.830 Magnetic Ordering: Paramagnetic Quiz: Ready to test your oxygen facts knowledge? Take the Oxygen Facts Quiz.Back to the Periodic Table of the Elements Sources Dole, Malcolm (1965). The Natural History of Oxygen (PDF). The Journal of General Physiology. 49 (1): 5Ã¢â¬â27. doi:10.1085/jgp.49.1.5Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 793. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.Priestley, Joseph (1775). An Account of Further Discoveries in Air.Ã Philosophical Transactions.Ã 65: 384Ã¢â¬â94.Ã Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Galaxy budgeting system - Research Paper Example hich then give periodic results regarding the resource requirements and usage by the different activities of the programs, which are then used as the basis for predicting the future budget requirements for programs and their subsequent activities (Dongsung, 97). The future budget is then informed by a comparison of the different programs and their resource consumption forming the basis for allocating future resources to such programs. Thus, the galaxy budgeting system does not only assess funding on the basis of terms only, but also on the basis of program comparison. The differentiating factor between the galaxy budgeting system and the other budgeting systems is that, the galaxy budgeting system employs the history of an organization, to determine its future resource allocation, while basing the allocations on the previous information and accomplishments (Dongsung, 103). This means that programs that make greater accomplishments have a higher chance of being allocated even more res ources, to enhance their further achievements. The advantage presented by the galaxy budgeting system is that; it safeguards against money wastage or confining of resources in the unproductive areas, since the system ensures the allocation of resources based on the productivity of the programs, thus steering the resource allocation in the right direction (Dongsung,